Tanzania offers free land to investors

Minister for Lands, Housing and Human

Minister for Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Mr Wlliam Lukuvi. Photo File

Dar es Salaam. The government will provide free land to investors who would be interested in establishing industries involved in making building and construction materials, a cabinet minister has revealed.

Opening the 21st Buldexpo this week, the minister for Lands, Housing and Human Settlements Development, Mr Wlliam Lukuvi, told the business community that the offer will last until December, aiming at attracting more investors in the building and construction sector and reducing imports.

Buldexpo is Africa’s building and construction tradeshow whose 21st edition is currently going on in the country for three days. It comprises more than 200 manufacturers and exporters from around the world, covering a variety of sectors in construction, ranging from building and construction materials, aluminum steel profiles, granite, ceramics and pipe fittings to mining tools and hardware.

So far, at least 800 plots have been set aside at Kibaha area, according to him, but the offer is for the whole country.

“I am happy that you (exhibitors) are here to showcase your modern construction materials, but I wish you could install plants for manufacturing them locally instead of importing them,” he told the exhibitors. To ease the process, Mr Lukuvi has announced the government would provide them with land free of charge.

“Whoever is interested should come to my office from tomorrow (31st October) and I will give you a well surveyed piece of land,” he said, adding that although the offer targeted manufacturers of construction and building materials, investors in other sectors would also benefit from the offer.

The minister also promised to assist investors to communicate with other ministries and regulatory bodies related to industrial investments, for further procedures.

“I know some of you have not tried the Tanzanian market before, but I assure you that you will not regret investing here. No company has operated at a loss in this country as the market is huge and the business environment is conducive,” he noted, reiterating the available opportunities in constructing affordable houses.

“We currently demand at least 50,000 housing units for public workers and other individuals. The government cannot afford to build them alone and seeks your (private sector) support,” he said.

He urged them to either build the houses on their own or collaborate with local companies.

Kenyan ambassador to Tanzania Dan Kazungu echoed Mr Lukuvi’s call, saying that the investments would also benefit Kenya and other East African countries.

“We (EAC) have common market agreements that encourage countries to do business with each other. So, constructing these industries in Tanzania will help you to access the Kenyan and other EAC countries’ markets,” he said.

Barrick Favors Taking Back Control of Acacia Mining

and                                                                  October 23, 2018

Image result for barrick gold tanzania         Image result for barrick gold tanzania

  • Separately listed Acacia is locked in dispute in Tanzania
  • Final decision depends on completion of merger with Randgold


Barrick Gold Corp. favors taking back control of its separately listed Tanzanian assets after completing its takeover of Africa-focused rival Randgold Resources Ltd., according to people familiar with the situation.

Barrick spun off those assets in 2010 into a company now called Acacia Mining Plc. That unit — listed in London but majority owned by Barrick — has been dogged by operational setbacks and is locked in a dispute with Tanzania’s government. The dispute would need to be resolved before any decision is made.

Acacia shares soared as much as 11 percent in London before slipping to close up 7.7 percent. The stock has declined 70 percent in the past two years. Barrick, which gained 1.6 percent in Toronto on Tuesday, has gained 29 percent since the merger was announced.


Once the merger with Randgold is complete, the enlarged group will look for solutions for Acacia, with Barrick favoring taking full ownership of the unit, the people said, asking not to be identified because the plans are private. Barrick currently owns 64 percent of Acacia. A 36 percent stake in the company would be valued at about $303 million, based on the closing price in London Tuesday.

Still, no final decision has been made, the people said. It’s also not clear whether all three of Acacia’s Tanzanian gold mines will be brought back into Barrick, one of the people said.

A spokesman for Barrick, Andy Lloyd, said the Toronto-based company declined to comment.

Tax Bill

Randgold’s chief executive officer, Mark Bristow, who has previously criticized the handling of the situation in Tanzania, will assume the same role at Barrick. Tanzania has banned exports of mineral concentrates and slapped Acacia with a $190 billion tax bill. Barrick would need to see a resolution of the Tanzanian disputes first as it wouldn’t want to assume those liabilities, one of the people said.

Bringing the assets back into Barrick would signal a significant U-turn by the Canadian company. Since first spinning them off, it has sold down its stake and tried to sell them to Chinese bidders.

Acacia, formerly called African Barrick Gold, promised gold output of 1 million ounces a year when it first listed in London. Instead, production has declined and this year is forecast to be just half that figure.

Barrick has been leading negotiations in Tanzania but progress has been slow and the relationship between the company and its subsidiary has become increasingly strained. Last week, Acacia was hit with more charges, including money laundering and corruption, and on Tuesday it said a senior executive was arrested. Acacia is seeking its own direct talks with the government and has threatened legal action.

Peter Geleta, Acacia’s interim CEO, has said the Barrick-Randgold merger would be positive, citing the African operating experience of Bristow.

More Info Barrick Favors Taking Back Control of Acacia Mining

Government, opposition tussle over Mohammed Dewji’s abduction

Khalifa Said and Haji Mtumwa                                                                                       17 October 2018   

The unresolved abduction of billionaire businessman Mohammed Dewji has led to a tussle between the government and the Opposition over calls to allow external investigators to join the hunt for the missing tycoon.

The opposition spokesperson for Home Affairs, Mr Godbless Lema, on Tuesday October 16 asked the government to invite foreign experts to investigate the abduction, accusing the police of not showing any serious resolve to find the businessman and arrest his abductors. But in a swift response, Home Affairs deputy minister Hamad Masauni declared that the government had no intention of allowing foreign investigators as police were capable of the work.

It was the second time that a senior government official had affirmed that no foreigners would be allowed to investigate the unfolding events around last week’s incident.

Home Affairs minister Kangi Lugola was the first to state that there was no need to invite forensic experts from outside Tanzania to handle the case.

However, addressing a press conference yesterday, Mr Lema criticised the police for the way they have conducted the investigation so far.

He said by allowing an independent investigator, the government would discredit claims that it may have been complicit in the abduction.

“If you look carefully at statements made by the government, and the police in particular, you’ll see an utter lack of seriousness as far as the (government’s) response is concerned,” said the Arusha Urban MP.

Mr Lema added that the investigation should also be expanded to include other incidents where people have disappeared without a trace in the last few years.

Mr Lugola said last week that at least 75 people had been abducted in the last three years alone, adding that most of the cases – which involved business rivalry, love affairs, witchcraft or revenge – were resolved.

In his first public statement since Mr Dewji was abducted, Mr Lema said the push for independent investigators would help vindicate the government of suspicion that it may have been behind such incidents.

Mr Lema, who is also a member of Chadema’s Central Committee, said the government should realise that seeking help from external investigators on such a matter of national importance was not a sign of weakness.

Rather, he added, it would show that the government was genuinely intent on resolving the mystery surrounding Mr Dewji’s abduction.

But speaking at a press conference in Zanzibar shortly after Mr Lema had spoken, Mr Masauni maintained that the government would not entertain such an idea because it had the capacity to handle the matter.

“I don’t see any reason to invite external investigators because we have enough capacity to carry out the job,” he said.

Mr Masauni urged Tanzanians and other people to volunteer information, which would help the authorities to find Mr Dewji.

Meanwhile, opposition chief whip Tundu Lissu called for action, saying abductions were on the rise. Mr Lissu is recovering in Belgium after he was shot and seriously wounded in an assassination attempt in Dodoma last year.

“We don’t have to involve politics in these incidents because they involve people’s lives. The government should take action,” he told The Citizen’s sister newspaper, Mwananchi.

Mr Dewji, 43, was abducted by unidentified gunmen last Thursday when he went for a workout at the high-end Colosseum Hotel in Oyster Bay, Dar es Salaam.

Police have released 19 of the 26 who were being held for questioning in connection with the abduction of the tycoon, whose family on Monday announced a reward of Sh1 billion for information leading to his safe return.

Mr Dewji was kidnapped by unknown men on Thursday October 11 and is still missing.

More Info Government, opposition tussle over Mo’s abduction  

Tanzania declared the whole nation was in mourning as first bodies of the deceased were buried

AFP                                                                                                                               24th September 2018

Tanzania buries ferry disaster dead as toll hits 224

The ageing vessel, whose hull and propellers were all that remained visible above water, was also carrying cargo, including sacks of maize, bananas and cement, when it capsized.

Tanzia 703x422

Tanzania declared the whole nation was in mourning Sunday as the first dozen bodies were buried from a devastating ferry capsize on Lake Victoria that left people 224 dead.

Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa led “national funerals” on the island of Ukara, where the MV Nyerere had been coming in to dock on Thursday.

He spoke of “great mourning by the whole nation” as the first coffins were placed in individual graves, many of the victims unidentified.

The remainder of the dead were to be buried later or taken away by families wishing for privates funerals.

The prime minister said a memorial would be built on Ukara.

Hopes had faded of finding any more survivors three days after the disaster, even after rescuers pulled out an engineer on Saturday who had holed up in an air pocket in the upturned vessel.

But Majaliwa said divers would continue the grim search in the waters around the boat. The ferry would also be refloated.

He updated the death toll to 126 women, 71 men, 17 girls and 10 boys. Just 41 people survived.

‘Overloading’ blamed for tragedy

Transport Minister Isack Kamwelwe said 265 people had been on board the ferry, which had an official capacity of around a hundred passengers.

The prime minister said initial investigations suggested overloading was one of the causes of the accident.

“We have already arrested all those people in charge of operating and supervising the MV Nyerere. Questioning has begun,” he said.

A broader commission of inquiry into the disaster would also be set up, Majaliwa added.

Witnesses told AFP that the ferry sank when passengers rushed to one side to disembark as it approached the dock. Others blamed the captain, saying he had made a brusque manoeuvre.

The Tanzanian presidency announced on Sunday evening that the inquiry had been “entrusted to the defence and security authorities”.

Transport minister Kamwelwe said on Saturday that 172 of the bodies had been identified by relatives.

Grief and anger

Dozens of wooden coffins had lined the shore on Saturday, waiting to be seen by families as police and volunteers sought to keep hundreds of curious locals at bay.

Aisha William came to collect the body of her husband. “He left on Tuesday around noon, but he never came home. I do not know how I am going to raise my two children,” she said.

Ahmed Caleb, a 27-year-old trader, railed at a tragedy “which could have been prevented.

“I’ve lost my boss, friends, people I went to school with,” he said.

The ageing vessel, whose hull and propellers were all that remained visible above water, was also carrying cargo, including sacks of maize, bananas and cement, when it capsized.

With a surface area of 70,000 square kilometres (27,000 square miles), oval-shaped Lake Victoria is roughly the size of Ireland and is shared by Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.

It is not uncommon for ferries to capsize on the lake, and the number of fatalities is often high due to a shortage of life jackets and the fact that many local people cannot swim.

In 1996, more than 800 people lost their lives on Lake Victoria when the MV Bukoba sank off the mainland town of Mwanza, according to the Red Cross.

More Info Tanzania buries ferry disaster dead as toll hits 224

Tanzania to switch to natural gas-powered buses

 Reporting by The Citizen                                                                                       September 18, 2018

Rapid transit bus in Dar es Salaam.

Rapid transit bus in Dar es Salaam. The project, one of its kind in East Africa, is expected to transform mobility and accessibility in the city. FILE PHOTO | NMG

In Summary

Tanzania plans to shift to natural gas-powered buses on its rapid transit routes in Dar es Salaam, a move it says will cut fuel use by up to 50 per cent.

The Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) acting director-general, Mr Kapuulya Musomba, says the entire project will see at least 800 buses switch to natural gas.

“The University of Dar es Salaam and Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology are ready to install the natural gas systems on the vehicles,” he said.

Dar es Salaam Rapid Transit (Dart) chief executive, Mr Ronald Lwakatare, said the system is available to all including private transport operators.

To install the system, a vehicle owner requires between Tsh1.6 million ($700) and Tsh2 million ($875) depending on the size of the vehicle.

“Experts have told us that the use of natural gas would save between 30 to 50 per cent of what one spends on fuel. We therefore agreed that all Dart buses should use natural gas. This will also help cut fares significantly,” Mr Musomba said.

Dart project

Mr Musomba also said that the Dart phase two project is underway.

Phase two runs on the southeast part of the city, a total of 19.3km. It includes procurement of buses and the fare collection system. More than 100 trunk buses with a capacity of 140 passengers will provide both normal (stopping at all stations) and express services (stopping only at connector stations).

Inaugurated in 2015, the first phase of the project comprises 25km of special roads connecting the suburbs to the central business district.

The entire project has six phases which, upon completion in 2035, will benefit 90 per cent of Dar es Salaam residents.

Filling stations

Mr Ben Kisisiwe, a Dar es Salaam resident, says he converted his vehicle from petrol to natural gas and currently spends about Tsh10,000 ($4.38) per trip, saving at least Tsh20,000 ($8.76).

However, he said that with only a single filling station in the city, he sometimes finds it difficult to use his vehicle, calling upon TPDC to increase the number of filling centres which should be operational for 24 hours.

To address this challenge the government will partner with fuel stations to distribute natural gas.

“We plan to use fuel filling stations to distribute natural gas. This means motorists will be able to refill at any nearby petrol station,” Mr Musomba said, noting a deal has already been struck with Camel and Oilcom.

He added that TPDC will build the main natural gas distribution centre at the University of Dar es Salaam.

More Info Tanzania to switch to natural gas-powered buses

Barrick Gold Seeks Chinese Partners in its Tanzania operation

  Natalie Obiko Pearson                                                                                           September 15,  2018
John Thornton Photographer: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg

Barrick Gold Corp. may slash 400 jobs and involve Chinese partners in its troubled Tanzania operations, Executive Chairman John Thornton told the Globe and Mail newspaper.

The Toronto-based company has slashed middle management by half to about 700 and “we want to get it down to 300,” Thornton, who’s been in his role since 2014, told the Globe in an interview in London. The former Goldman Sachs Group Inc. executive wants a leaner, entrepreneurial partnership more like the early days under late founder Peter Munk, the Globe said.

Thornton said there’s “an almost 100 percent” chance Chinese partners will get involved in Barrick’s projects in Tanzania that are operated through its 64 percent stake in Acacia Mining Plc. Acacia has plummeted 84 percent since its high in 2016 amid disputes with the government, which imposed a ban on exports of mineral concentrates last year and slapped the miner with a $190 billion tax bill.

Latest Tanzania Setback Sends Acacia Mining Tumbling Again

The Acacia mines have never paid income tax to the Tanzanian government, which wants a new deal, Thornton told the Globe. Chinese companies can bring capital, technical expertise and — above all — political connections in Africa and Latin America that North American miners can’t match, he told the Globe.

“It’s one thing to be a Canadian company. It’s another to have China as your partner,” Thornton told the Globe. “If I know one thing, I know this is right: we have the thinnest talent in the most difficult areas and we can’t develop all these projects alone.”

Thornton again floated the idea — raised in a town hall with employees last month — about forming a copper company with Chinese miners.

China Copper Partner for Barrick Gold Makes Sense, Thornton Says

Thornton denied speculation that he may exit the company.

“I’m not leaving until this company is in the shape it ought to be in,” Thornton told the newspaper. “I have always stuck at things until I was either chucked out or achieved what I want to achieve.”

More Info Barrick Gold Seeks Chinese Partners, May Slash Headcount: Globe

Tanzania and Uganda Major Natural Gas Pipeline Project

Florian Kaijage                                                                                                                       25 August 2018
Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni (left) withUganda's President Yoweri Museveni (left) with his Tanzanian counterpart John Pombe Magufuli after commissioning the Mutukula one-stop border post on November 9, 2017. The also laid a second foundation stone for the crude pipeline in Ruzinga, Kyotera district in Uganda. PHOTO | PPU


Tanzania and Uganda have signed an agreement for the construction a natural gas pipeline.

The multimillion dollar deal was signed at the end of a three-day Joint Permanent Commission Summit held in Kampala, led by Tanzania’s Foreign Minister Augustine Mahiga and Uganda’s Minister for Energy Irene Muloni.

The summit was preceded by a series of meetings that involved permanent secretaries and other senior officials.

The deal was a culmination of work that began during the first Tanzania-Uganda meeting held in April last year in Arusha, in which the two agreed on a number of memoranda and co-operation frameworks.

The pipeline comes just 15 months after Dar es Salaam and Kampala agreed in May 2017, to construct a crude oil pipeline from Hoima in Uganda, to Chongoleani in Tanga.

The project led by French oil multinational Total as the main contactor was launched in Tanga by Presidents John Magufuli of Tanzania and Yoweri Museveni of Uganda.

This will be the first trans-border gas pipeline in East Africa since the extraction of natural gas commenced in 2004 at the Songosongo Island in Tanzania’s southern region of Lindi.

Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation set August 24, 2018, as the deadline for submission of tender documents for the consultancy services for feasibility studies.

TPDC managing director Kapuulya Musomba told The EastAfrican that he was confident the pipeline construction would be successful given the expertise and experience gained through the construction and servicing of two pipelines — the 532km Mtwara-Dar es Salaam one and the crude oil pipeline that is underway.

He said that apart from carrying natural gas to Uganda, the pipeline will distribute the product along the route.

“About 10 to 15 Tanzania regions will benefit from the pipeline that will also serve as a catalyst for oil and gas exploration,” Mr Musomba said.

Tanzania has a confirmed natural gas recoverable reserve of 57.5 trillion cubic feet.

Mr Musomba, however, did not reveal the source force funding for the project.

The gas to be transmitted is meant for power generation for industrial and domestic use. A half of Tanzania’s power generation depends on natural gas plants generate 684.66MW, those using diesel 125.429MW and hydro 561.843MW.

Uganda plans to set up a mega project to extract iron ore, a key raw material for the production of iron and steel.

During his visit to Tanzania on August 9, 2018, President Museveni underscored the need for improving production of iron, which is required for infrastructure projects, such as the standard gauge railways in Kenya and Tanzania.

More Info Tanzania, Uganda sign gas pipeline deal

The government secures loan for Nyakanazi – Kigoma transmission project

Featured image: Stock

Tanzania has been granted a loan worth $123.39 million to finance part of the country’s North-West Grid 400kV Nyakanaz–Kigoma power transmission line project.  

The funding was approved last Friday by the multilateral development finance institution, the African Development Bank (AfDB).

The project aims to improve supply, reliability and affordability of electricity in the Kigoma Region in north-western Tanzania by providing main grid access for the socio-economic transformation of the region in line with the country’s 2025 vision.

It is projected to increase electricity access from 16.2% to 20% in the region with over 483,000 households by 2024. Read more: Regional development bank commits to Tanzania’s gas power plant

This power transmission line to be completed by 2024 involves:

  • The construction of a 280-km 400KV transmission line from Nyakanazi to Kigoma;
  • Extension of Nyakanazi substation and construction of a new substation at Kigoma;
  • Integration of existing Kigoma and Kasulu 33KV distribution networks with the main grid including supply of last-mile connection materials to serve at-least 10,000 new consumers in Kigoma Region.

Consultancy and audit services as well as compensation and/or resettlement of people affected by the project will also be implemented.

The project will be financed from three sources, namely, the AfDB loan, the South Korea Economic Development Co-operation Fund and the government of Tanzania. The funds, which represent 66%, 24% and 10% respectively of the overall cost, is estimated at $186.12 million.

Power transmission line

The power transmission line project will lower energy production costs by decommissioning expensive diesel-powered plants in Kigoma and Kasulu urban centres including surrounding areas.

In addition to enhancing job creation, the project is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in north western Tanzania.

Furthermore, it will complement the ongoing Bank-funded 220 kV Rusumo-Nyakanazi regional transmission line including the multinational 80MW Rusumo Hydro Power Plant as well as other development partner supported energy infrastructure programmes in north western Tanzania.

More Info Tanzania secures loan for Nyakanaz–Kigoma transmission project

Govt sets up ‘business clinic’ in reform push

Dar es Salaam                                                                                                                        4 July 2018.

The government has come up with an initiative that is aimed at speeding up the process of improving Tanzania’s business climate.

Industry, Trade and Investment minister Charles Mwijage launched the initiative – dubbed the Tanzania Business Clinic (TBC) – in Dar es Salaam yesterday.

The launch followed the recent adoption by the Cabinet of a blueprint meant to lay the groundwork for a raft of amendments to laws and regulations with a view to improving the business environment.

Mr Mwijage said TBC would identify and provide long and short-term solutions to challenges specific companies or sectors were grappling with.

“TBC is basically a platform that will consist of business experts and officials from public institutions and agencies that are closely linked to business operations. They will teach people about the best ways of doing business as well as policies and regulations guiding them,” he said.

The group will have its head office in Dar es Salaam and branches in all Small Industries Development Organisation (Sido) offices across the country.

 “The platform comes after it was realised that efforts to come up with the Blueprint will be futile if the document will directly touch the targeted people,” Mr Mwijage said.

Presenting the 2018/19 Budget in Parliament last month, Finance and Planning minister Philip Mpango said implementation of the Blueprint would start during the 2018/19 financial year, which began on July 1.

“In a bid to stimulate industrial development, the government will direct more efforts in the implementation of the Blueprint for Regulatory Reform to Improve Business Environment for Tanzania in order to attract private sector investments, particularly in textiles; leather and meat; fish, edible oil; medicines and medical equipment; food and animal feeds; and mining,” Dr Mpango said.

These initiatives come after Tanzania put on a lacklustre performance in the World Bank’s Doing Business Report.

The blueprint – prepared after thorough consultations with various private sector associations and World Bank officials – will see the government initiate amendments of various laws including those governing value added tax; indicative prices for imports; immigration and labour; social security and environmental management, among others.

In the World Bank’s Doing Business 2018 Report, which was released last year, Tanzania was ranked 137th among 190 economies surveyed. The country did particularly poorly in starting a business (ranked 162nd); construction permits (156th); trading across borders (182nd) and registering a property (142nd).

But Mr Mwijage is optimistic that if the Blueprint is embraced by both the business community and regulators, it would help to change the latter’s mind-set towards businesses.

He said a mind-set change would help the government to score “quick wins” in key sectors.

“We are currently focusing on industries that will consume raw materials which are locally produced so as to stimulate production and value addition.”

The government, Mr Mwijage noted, was also focusing on manufacturing industries that were crucial in job creation.

“We believe that these industries have what it takes to transform Tanzania into an inclusive middle-income economy in line with our growth aspirations,” he said, adding that more emphasis was also being put on the cooking oil and pharmaceutical industries.

More Info Govt sets up ‘business clinic’ in reform push

Tanzania to issue mining licences through cabinet approval

Tanzania will issue large-scale mining licences only after cabinet approval, a senior official said on Friday, part of new measures aimed at further tightening control of the industry.

The East African country previously issued licences for large-scale projects through its mining ministry, but then delegated powers to a newly-appointed mining commission under new regulations passed in January.

Tanzania, Africa’s fourth-largest gold producer, is seeking a bigger return from its vast mineral resources by overhauling the fiscal and regulatory regime of its mining sector.

“The whole government, through the cabinet, will now be involved in approving licences for large-scale mining companies to make sure that national interests are safeguarded,” Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs Palamagamba Kabudi told members of parliament.

“For far too long, our mining laws have presided over the exploitation of our natural resource wealth instead of overseeing investments for the benefit of the nation,” Kabudi added.

The government overhauled the fiscal and regulatory regime of its mining sector last year, unnerving some foreign investors.

On Friday, Tanzania also announced that it would no longer sign new mineral development agreements (MDAs), which guarantee a stable tax regime for existing mining companies.

Foreign-owned mining companies that currently have MDAs in place in Tanzania include three gold-producing mines owned by London-listed Acacia Mining Plc and one gold mine owned by Anglogold Ashanti.

President John Magufuli has approved a series of actions since election in late 2015 that sent shockwaves through the Tanzanian mining industry.

In July last year, he suspended the issuance of all new mining licences until the new mining regulatory regime was in place.

The government has also imposed a ban on exports of gold and copper concentrates.

Barrick Gold Corp., majority shareholder of Acacia Mining, is currently at loggerheads with the government after Acacia was banned from exporting gold and copper concentrates, having been accused of tax evasion.

Acacia, which denies the allegations, has said it was seeking international arbitration for its investment dispute. It has since launched talks with the government.

At Friday’s parliamentary session, Mining Minister Angellah Kairuki said the government’s ban on exports of gold and copper concentrates would remain in force until mineral smelters were built in the East African nation.

“So far, 27 companies have already expressed interest to build mineral sand smelters in the country,” she said.

Kairuki said the ban on exports of mineral sand was aimed at boosting government revenue collection by adding value to the minerals in Tanzania.

By Fumbuka Ng’wanakilala

Editing by Aaron Maasho and Adrian Croft, REUTERS.